2004 August - Biotechnology Agriculture's Gene Revolution

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FPJ0102 Article - Economic Impacts of Adopting GM Crops in the United States

Lin, W, Price, G, Falck-Zepeda, J and Fernandez-Cornejo, J
Farm Policy Journal, August 2004, Volume 1, Number 2, pp. 50 - 64 (15 pages)

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FPJ0102 Article - What Would Happen to Australia's Export Markets for Canola if GM Varieties were Released Commercially

Barber, M
Farm Policy Journal, August 2004, Volume 1, Number 2, pp. 34 - 40 (7 pages)

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FPJ0801 - Rimmer M, Owning Omega-3 - Monsanto and the invention of meat

 In August of 2010, Anna Salleh of the Science Unit of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation broke a story about Monsanto seeking to patent the enhancement of meat, including omega-3 fatty acids: Enhanced pork is sparking debate over the ethics of placing patents on food. Patent applications covering the enhancement of meat, including pork with omega-3 fatty acids, are stimulating debate over the ethics and legalities of claiming intellectual property over food. Monsanto has filed patents that cover the feeding of animals soybeans, which have been genetically modified by the company to contain stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-derived omega-3 fatty acid... Omega-3s have been linked to improved cardiovascular health and there are many companies engineering them into foodstuffs. But the new patent applications have touched a raw nerve among those who see them as an attempt by the company to exert control over the food chain. (Salleh 2010) This article provides a critical evaluation of the controversy of Monsanto’s patent applications, and the larger issues over patenting food. It first considers the patent portfolio of Monsanto; the nature of the patent claims; and the examination of the claims by patent examiners. Second, it examines the withdrawal and revision of the patent claims by Monsanto in the wake of criticism by patent authorities and the public disquiet over the controversial application. Third, this article considers the larger policy issues raised by Monsanto’s patent applications – including the patenting of plants, animals and foodstuffs. There is also a consideration of the impact of patents upon the administration of healthcare, competition and research. Rimmer, M - Owning Omega-3: Monsanto and the invention of meat
Farm Policy Journal Autumn 2011, Volume 8, Number 1, pp. 11-21

Biotechnology, GM, GMO, Genetically modified agriculture, Australia

 

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FPJ0801 - Napasintuwong O,The rise of rice biotechnology

Rice is a staple food in Asia and demand is increasing in other regions. Even though the demand for rice among Asian consumers is expected to decrease on a per capita basis as they earn more, this will be offset by increased demand for rice in lower-income countries in Asia. The demand for specialty rice such as fragrant rice and nutrition-enhanced varieties will also increase as higher income consumers demand higher quality and healthier products. The breeding of rice is becoming more challenging among rice producing countries as international competition rises. While conventional breeding techniques are used to develop rice varieties that can better cope with biotic and abiotic stresses and enhance quality, biotechnology could provide a more efficient solution. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genetic engineering are two modern biotechnologies extensively used in rice breeding and have been estimated to generate economic benefits for adopting countries. Nevertheless, the persistence of international trade regulations which restrict trade in some genetically modified (GM) products has delayed the use of genetic engineering for rice cultivation. This paper looks at the main issues at stake for rice production and marketing, taking into account the current role of both trade and biotechnology regulations, and their potential future evolution.

Napasintuwong, O - The rise of rice biotechnology
Farm Policy Journal Autumn 2011, Volume 8, Number 1, pp. 55-65

Biotechnology, GM, GMO, Genetically modified agriculture, Australia.

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FPJ0801 - Phelps B, GM crops and foods- promises, profits and politics

The cruelest lie about Genetically Manipulated (GM) crops and foods is that they can ‘feed the world’. GM companies use empty promises of bountiful, designer foods to foist GM onto reluctant governments, farmers and shoppers. The UN says there is now enough food to feed everyone but our social priorities and conflicts allow a billion people to starve. GM technology cannot right this injustice, but false promises take scarce resources away from finding durable solutions to feeding, housing and clothing us all. Independent scientific evidence also shows that some GM foods may pose risks to human and animal health and the environment, but industry censorship hides the truth. Since commercial GM canola seed was first sold in some Australian states in 2008, GM contamination is imposing extra costs and losses on farmers and the food industry. Australia also risks losing its unique competitive advantage as the main supplier of GM-free grains to world markets. Farmer Protection laws that make the owners and users of GM responsible for their products have growing support. A more precautionary, open and scientific regulatory regime on all GM plants, animals and micro-organisms is also needed.  Phelps, B - GM crops and foods: promises, profits and politics
Farm Policy Journal Autumn 2011, Volume 8, Number 1, pp. 75-85

Biotechnology, GM, GMO, Genetically modified agriculture, Australia

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