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2004 August - Biotechnology Agriculture's Gene Revolution

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Farm Policy Journal - Vol 1 No 2 2004 August - Full Journal

Biotechnology - Agriculture's Gene Revolution
August Quarter 2004, Volume 1, Number 2
Publisher - Australian Farm Institute



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Farm Policy Journal - Vol 8 No 1 2011 Autumn - Full Journal

Can agriculture manage a genetically modified future?
Autumn quarter 2011, Volume 8, Number 1
Publisher - Australian Farm Institute
ISSN 1449-8812

Biotechnology, GM, GMO, Genetically modified agriculture, Australia


FPJ0801 - Rimmer M, Owning Omega-3 - Monsanto and the invention of meat

 In August of 2010, Anna Salleh of the Science Unit of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation broke a story about Monsanto seeking to patent the enhancement of meat, including omega-3 fatty acids: Enhanced pork is sparking debate over the ethics of placing patents on food. Patent applications covering the enhancement of meat, including pork with omega-3 fatty acids, are stimulating debate over the ethics and legalities of claiming intellectual property over food. Monsanto has filed patents that cover the feeding of animals soybeans, which have been genetically modified by the company to contain stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-derived omega-3 fatty acid... Omega-3s have been linked to improved cardiovascular health and there are many companies engineering them into foodstuffs. But the new patent applications have touched a raw nerve among those who see them as an attempt by the company to exert control over the food chain. (Salleh 2010) This article provides a critical evaluation of the controversy of Monsanto’s patent applications, and the larger issues over patenting food. It first considers the patent portfolio of Monsanto; the nature of the patent claims; and the examination of the claims by patent examiners. Second, it examines the withdrawal and revision of the patent claims by Monsanto in the wake of criticism by patent authorities and the public disquiet over the controversial application. Third, this article considers the larger policy issues raised by Monsanto’s patent applications – including the patenting of plants, animals and foodstuffs. There is also a consideration of the impact of patents upon the administration of healthcare, competition and research. Rimmer, M - Owning Omega-3: Monsanto and the invention of meat
Farm Policy Journal Autumn 2011, Volume 8, Number 1, pp. 11-21

Biotechnology, GM, GMO, Genetically modified agriculture, Australia



FPJ0801 - Hursh K, GM Canola in Canada- the pros and cons

Farmers in Western Canada have been growing genetically modified (GM) canola for 15 seasons. Both Monsanto’s Roundup Ready canola and Liberty Link / InVigor canola from Bayer CropScience were introduced in the mid-90s. The acreages of these two herbicide tolerant types of canola have steadily increased, but GM canola has had drawbacks and continues to attract controversy. The other canola system of note, accounting for a declining minority of the Canadian acreage, is Clearfield. While this involves resistance to another type of herbicide chemistry, the resistance trait was developed through mutagenesis and not through transgenics so it isn’t considered to be GM. Interestingly, most Canadian growers are oblivious to this distinction. They choose the system that works best for their farming operation. There is brisk competition in variety improvement within each of the systems and producer choices are greatly influenced by the superiority of varieties, irrespective of system. Canadian canola is not segregated, so no matter what system a producer is using, the production has to go into markets that will accept GM traits.
Hursh, K - GM Canola in Canada: the pros and cons
Farm Policy Journal Autumn 2011,  Volume 8, Number 1, pp. 51-53
Biotechnology, GM, GMO, Genetically modified agriculture, Australia


FPJ0801 - Napasintuwong O,The rise of rice biotechnology

Rice is a staple food in Asia and demand is increasing in other regions. Even though the demand for rice among Asian consumers is expected to decrease on a per capita basis as they earn more, this will be offset by increased demand for rice in lower-income countries in Asia. The demand for specialty rice such as fragrant rice and nutrition-enhanced varieties will also increase as higher income consumers demand higher quality and healthier products. The breeding of rice is becoming more challenging among rice producing countries as international competition rises. While conventional breeding techniques are used to develop rice varieties that can better cope with biotic and abiotic stresses and enhance quality, biotechnology could provide a more efficient solution. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genetic engineering are two modern biotechnologies extensively used in rice breeding and have been estimated to generate economic benefits for adopting countries. Nevertheless, the persistence of international trade regulations which restrict trade in some genetically modified (GM) products has delayed the use of genetic engineering for rice cultivation. This paper looks at the main issues at stake for rice production and marketing, taking into account the current role of both trade and biotechnology regulations, and their potential future evolution.

Napasintuwong, O - The rise of rice biotechnology
Farm Policy Journal Autumn 2011, Volume 8, Number 1, pp. 55-65

Biotechnology, GM, GMO, Genetically modified agriculture, Australia.


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