The research engine of the agricultural innovation system in Australia includes the CSIRO, the State Departments of Primary Industry, Universities, and researchers employed in the private sector. In many ways the Universities play a crucial role both as centres of research, but also as the training ground for future researchers. Evidence that has emerged over recent years suggests that Australian Universities are becoming the weak link in the Australian agricultural innovation system, and without significant change, the situation appears likely to get worse rather than better.
Annual enrollments in University agriculture courses have declined rapidly in Australia over the past decade, as the following graph produced by the Australian Council of Deans of Agriculture highlights.
Even though reports indicate there has in fact been a growth in enrollments in agricultural courses in 2013, the decline in student enrollments that has occurred over the past decade has raised serious questions about the viability of University agricultural faculties as teaching and research institutions.
Universities in Australia need to generate fees from students to remain viable. For agricultural faculties, the lack of students means that less fees are generated, and agricultural courses become expensive to run because staff still need to be paid, irrespective of whether they are fronting classes of twenty or one hundred and twenty students. On top of the staff costs, agricultural courses require laboratories and field stations (greatly adding to costs) and do not attract many full-fee paying international students. Contrast that with say, a Commerce course that attracts hundreds of student enrollments, many of them from overseas, and requires no more facilities than a lecture hall and a few tutorial rooms, and you begin to understand why Deans and Vice Chancellors are reluctant to give extra resources to agriculture faculties.
A lack of resources and staff in turn makes it more difficult for agricultural faculties to maintain research capacity, and to compete for research grants. Inevitably, the smaller University agriculture faculties need to join with others to successfully compete for research funding, which adds costs and reduces the efficiency of a project.
This also becomes a vicious cycle, because of the way that the research activities of Australian Universities are assessed by the Australian Government. Under the Excellence in Research Australia (ERA) arrangements which are used as part of the assessment for future research funding, one of the main criteria used to assess research outputs is the number of publications that are produced, with international publications receiving higher scores that local publications. As an example, a research paper on climate change published in an international journal such as Nature might get 15 points, whereas a paper on pesticide resistance in crops published in an Australian agricultural journal might only get 2 points.This highlights that the incentive is to strongly focus on research that has the potential for an international publication, rather than research into an issue that may be a pressing problem for Australian farmers.
What is completely missing from the way University research is assessed in Australia is any measure of the actual impact of that research on the industry sector.
But the problems for University agricultural researchers don't stop there. Most of the industry funding that is available from the rural research and development corporations is only for short-term projects - typically three years - which provided only very limited security of employment for researchers. In fact, some of the most widely respected agricultural researchers at Australian Universities have never had secure tenure - they have to build their careers based on only ever having 2-3 years of funding available.
A further challenge for University agricultural researchers is that the 'system' (which reward international publications and time spent teaching students) discourages researchers from spending time interacting with farmers and the agriculture sector. The end result is that University researchers are increasingly remote from the sector they are aiming to service, and this has two implications. One is it creates a greater risk that research may not be relevant to the sector, but the second is that it means the farm sector does not identify with or appreciate University researchers, and will be less likely to support them politically when they face funding cuts.
This all points to a need for some major changes to the 'system' for University agricultural research in Australia, with a revamp of the "Excellence in Research Australia" system in order to put much greater emphasis on industry impacts. Researchers should also have much stronger incentives to spend time engaging with industry, and have available longer-term and larger-scale projects that provide better opportunities for advancement and more secure tenure. Getting changes like this implemented in the University system will take a lot of time and effort, and unfortunately it is not immediately obvious who will champion such changes.